Jeep is a car of double-purpose (for transportation of cargo and passengers) with high off-road performance. Offroader is a car that can move regardless of locality. This term was used for the first time in 1992 in some periodical publications in order to delete the word «jeep» from memory of consumers that was widely used and promoted the firm belonged to Chrysler.
The origin of the word «jeep» causes many disputes. According the most common version the word arose from abbreviation GPW (abbreviation of the company «Ford Motor» deciphered as G – governmental order, P – a car with wheel-base to 80 inches, W – type Willys). The car was released by the company «Ford Motor» according to technical documentation of the firm «Willys» and mobilizing contract concluded with the US government. According another version «Willys MB» fell into category of general purpose cars abbreviated as «gp» that resulted in appearing the word jeep. However, this definition of the term suggests a large number of car types: from dump trucks to cross-country vehicles. For that reason in modern interpretation offroader means an all-terrain vehicle.
Offroaders possess all-wheel drive transmission and intended both for delivering cargo and transportation of passengers. There are three main subclasses: cars for active recreation in countryside, offroaders of general purpose and offroaders for professional use. All these variants are differed by level of the equipment and comfort but have common features allowing to unite them as one class. In 1940 the company «Ford» started producing model Ford GP (general purpose). Soldiers began to call the model jeep and later they gave this name to other cross-country models.
After the war producing army jeeps didn't stop in USA and police, ambulance doctors, farmers, hunters and fishermen were interested in them. The name Jeep was registered as trade mark whereas the word offroader was implemented for designation of cars` class. Gradually offroaders began to appear in model ranges of other trade marks: in 1946 Nissan released a copy of American jeep and in 1948 the first British jeep «Land Rover» appeared. Besides, the latter model was made of aluminium as there wasn`t enough amount of steel after the war.
American industrialist Arthur Herrington is considered to be the creator of the first offroader. In the First World War he was thinking about inventing fundamentally new transport vehicle that will be able to drive on lack of roads. Herrington experimented with four-wheeled and six-wheeled trucks.