Delivering of cargo by trucks is the most demanded type of transportation as it`s convenient and reliable. There is a great variety of their variations: trucks are divided into groups depending on type of cargo, body, capacity and others. Classification of trucks is used for consideration of all their necessary parameters for choosing optimal combination of efficiency, speed of delivery, safety and others. The most common type of body is truck flat body that is considered to be basic and intended for transportation of practically any cargo. However, there are some other types of body designed for delivering definite kinds of cargo. Vans are used for delivering individual items of freight and packaged cargo. Container trucks are suitable for transportation of loads in containers. Liquid loads are usually delivered in tank-trucks. The purpose of dump trucks is delivering bulk cargo. Dump trucks belong to the most common types of specialized trucks. They are equipped with reinforced metal rear-dump body designed for delivering bulk cargoes.
All trucks can be divided into the following popular categories depending on type of body: semitrailer, refrigerators, jumbo, car transporter truck, grain truck and others. Distribution truck is the most lightweight and compact model. Their gross vehicle weight shouldn't exceed 3,5 tones. The second common type is pickup truck that presents a modification of usual passenger vehicle complemented with a special open body or special model with body-on-frame chassis. Pickups are especially loved in USA where farmers use them.
Modifications of trucks are different. Driver`s cab can be placed over engine. Quantity of axles varies from two to five and even more. Another technical distinguishing feature is variety of engines used in trucks. They can be diverse – gasoline-powered, diesel, power gas, multifuel or hybrid. As a rule, load capacity of trucks which can move on roads of general network usually reaches approximately 20-25 tones.
In USA classification of commercial trucks of first class is based on gross train weight (permitted maximum mass). Classification of means of transportation is identified by numbers from 1 to 8. First, second and third categories present lightweight trucks; 4,5 and 6 – trucks of medium load capacity whereas 7 and 8 are cars intended for transportation of cargo within loading range. As a rule, in USA drivers of trucks should have an LCV license allowing to drive a car of the first and second category with maximum permissible gross weight not exceeding 3500 kilos. Owners of license related to category C have a right to drive a truck of 1-8 categories. However, there are definite restrictions on overall weight that can reach 7500 kilos or more. Such licenses as LGV and CE provide an opportunity of driving trailers.
American type of delivery van that is primarily intended for transportation of mail is called multistep as its driver`s cab is equipped with sliding door and differed by increased height of body for a quick entrance/exit of forwarding agent.